Well this is a very common question and it's hard to answer with any real accuracy.
For any plant it's remarkable the difference in growth rate of a happy plant, with correct light levels and access to the required nutrients and water and a plant defficient in any one of those three key ingredients.
A bamboo happily planted in the ground, as a rule of thumb will gain 1/3 of its existing height in a season. So for a 3m bamboo you can expect 1m of new height in that season.
Now of course this varies from different types of bamboo but this would generally apply to Bisset Bamboo, Yellow Groove Bamboo, Golden Bamboo, and Golden Crooskstem Bamboo.
Other varieties especially Fargesia varieties, even happy and content will grow at a much slower rate.
The growth rate for potted bamboo is also less vigorous. But regular watering and feeding and a nice big pot to grow in will certainly make a big difference.